Arahant: “Worthy one; pure one.” A person who has cut all the fetters of the mind, and thus is not destined for future rebirth.

Āsava: Effluent; fermentation. Four qualities—sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance—that “flow out” or “bubble up” from the mind and create the flood of the round of death and rebirth.

Deva (devatā): Literally, “shining one.” An inhabitant of the heavenly and terrestrial realms higher than the human.

Dhamma: (1) Event; action; (2) a phenomenon in and of itself; (3) mental quality; (4) doctrine, teaching; (5) nibbāna (although there are passages describing nibbāna as the abandoning of all dhammas). Sanskrit form: Dharma.

Jhāna: Mental absorption. A state of strong concentration focused on a single sensation or mental notion. This term is derived from the verb jhāyati, which means to burn with a still, steady flame. Sanskrit form: dhyāna.

Māra: Death and temptation personified.

Tathāgata: Literally, “one who has become authentic (tatha-āgata)” or “one who is truly gone (tathā-gata),” an epithet used in ancient India for a person who has attained the highest religious goal. In Buddhism, it usually denotes the Buddha, although occasionally it also denotes any of his arahant disciples.

Vinaya: Discipline; the monastic code of conduct. The Buddha’s own name for hs teaching was “This Dhamma-&-Vinaya.”